Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the existence of weak solutions for a nonlinear boundary value problem of fractional qdifference equations in Banach space. Our analysis relies on the Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness.
MSC: 26A33, 34B15.
Keywords:
boundary value problem; fractional qdifference equations; Caputo fractional derivative; weak solutions1 Introduction
Fractional differential calculus is a discipline to which many researchers are dedicating their time, perhaps because of its demonstrated applications in various fields of science and engineering [1]. Many researchers studied the existence of solutions to fractional boundary value problems, for example, [210].
The qdifference calculus or quantum calculus is an old subject that was initially developed by Jackson [11,12]; basic definitions and properties of qdifference calculus can be found in [13,14].
The fractional qdifference calculus had its origin in the works by AlSalam [15] and Agarwal [16]. More recently, maybe due to the explosion in research within the fractional differential calculus setting, new developments in this theory of fractional qdifference calculus were made, for example, qanalogues of the integral and differential fractional operators properties such as MittageLeffler function [17], just to mention some.
ElShahed and Hassan [18] studied the existence of positive solutions of the qdifference boundary value problem:
Ferreira [19] considered the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference boundary value problem:
Ferreira [20] studied the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference boundary value problem:
ElShahed and AlAskar [21] studied the existence of positive solutions to nonlinear qdifference equation:
where and is the fractional qderivative of the Caputo type.
Ahmad, Alsaedi and Ntouyas [22] discussed the existence of solutions for the secondorder qdifference equation with nonseparated boundary conditions
where , , , and is a fixed constant, and is a fixed real number.
Ahmad and Nieto [23] discussed a nonlocal nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP) of thirdorder qdifference equations given by
where , , and is a fixed constant, and is a real number.
This paper is mainly concerned with the existence results for the following fractional qdifference equations:
where and is the fractional qderivative of the Caputo type. is a given function satisfying some assumptions that will be specified later, and E is a Banach space with norm .
To investigate the existence of solutions of the problem above, we use Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness, which is an important method for seeking solutions of differential equations. This technique was mainly initiated in the monograph of Banaś and Goebel [24], and subsequently developed and used in many papers; see, for example, Banaś et al.[25], Guo et al.[26], Krzyska and Kubiaczyk [27], Lakshmikantham and Leela [28], Mönch [29], O’Regan [30,31], Szufla [32,33] and the references therein. As far as we know, there are very few results devoted to weak solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations [3438]. Motivated by the above mentioned papers, the purpose of this paper is to establish the existence results for the boundary value problem (1.1) by virtue of the Mönch’s fixedpoint theorem combined with the technique of measures of weak noncompactness.
The remainder of this article is organized as follows. In Section 2, we provide some basic definitions, preliminaries facts and various lemmas, which are needed later. In Section 3, we give main results of the problem (1.1). In the end, we also give an example for the illustration of the theories established in this paper.
2 Preliminaries and lemmas
In this section, we present some basic notations, definitions and preliminary results, which will be used throughout this paper.
Let and define [13]
The qanalogue of the power is
If α is not a positive integer, then
Note that if , then . The qgamma function is defined by
The qderivative of a function f is here defined by
and qderivatives of higher order by
The qintegral of a function f defined in the interval is given by
If and f is defined in the interval , its integral from a to b is defined by
Similarly, as done for derivatives, an operator can be defined, namely,
The fundamental theorem of calculus applies to these operators and , that is,
and if f is continuous at , then
Basic properties of the two operators can be found in the book mentioned in [13]. We now point out three formulas that will be used later ( denotes the derivative with respect to variable i) [19]
Remark 2.1 We note that if and , then [19].
Let and denote the Banach space of realvalued Lebesgue integrable functions on the interval J, denote the Banach space of realvalued essentially bounded and measurable functions defined over J with the norm .
Let E be a real reflexive Banach space with norm and dual , and let denote the space E with its weak topology. Here, is the Banach space of continuous functions with the usual supremum norm .
Moreover, for a given set V of functions , let us denote by , and .
Definition 2.1 A function is said to be weakly sequentially continuous if h takes each weakly convergent sequence in E to a weakly convergent sequence in E (i.e. for any in E with in then in for each ).
Definition 2.2[39]
The function is said to be Pettis integrable on J if and only if there is an element corresponding to each such that for all , where the integral on the right is supposed to exist in the sense of Lebesgue. By definition, .
Let be the space of all Evalued Pettis integrable functions in the interval J.
Lemma 2.1[39]
Ifis Pettis integrable andis a measurable and an essentially bounded realvalued function, thenis Pettis integrable.
Definition 2.3[40]
Let E be a Banach space, the set of all bounded subsets of E, and the unit ball in E. The De Blasi measure of weak noncompactness is the map defined by
Lemma 2.2[40]
The De Blasi measure of noncompactness satisfies the following properties:
(b) is relatively weakly compact;
(d) , wheredenotes the weak closure ofS;
The following result follows directly from the HahnBanach theorem.
Lemma 2.3LetEbe a normed space with. Then there existswithand.
Definition 2.4[16]
Let and f be a function defined on . The fractional qintegral of the RiemannLiouville type is and
Definition 2.5[14]
The fractional qderivative of the RiemannLiouville type of order is defined by and
where is the smallest integer greater than or equal to α.
Definition 2.6[14]
The fractional qderivative of the Caputo type of order is defined by
where is the smallest integer greater than or equal to α.
Lemma 2.4[14]
Letand letfbe a function defined on. Then the next formulas hold:
Lemma 2.5[32]
LetDbe a closed convex and equicontinuous subset of a metrizable locally convex vector spacesuch that. Assume thatis weakly sequentially continuous. If the implication
holds for every subsetVofD, thenAhas a fixed point.
3 Main results
Let us start by defining what we mean by a solution of the problem (1.1).
Definition 3.1 A function is said to be a solution of the problem (1.1) if u satisfies the equation on J, and satisfy the conditions , .
For the existence results on the problem (1.1), we need the following auxiliary lemmas.
Lemma 3.1[19]
Letand. Then, the following equality holds:
Lemma 3.2[14]
Letand. Then the following equality holds:
We derive the corresponding Green’s function for boundary value problem (1.1), which will play major role in our next analysis.
Lemma 3.3Letbe a given function, then the boundaryvalue problem
has a unique solution
whereis defined by the formula
Here, is called the Green’s function of boundary value problem (3.1).
Proof By Lemma 2.4 and Lemma 3.2, we can reduce the equation of problem (3.1) to an equivalent integral equation
Applying the boundary conditions , we have
So, we have
Then, by the condition , we have
Therefore, the unique solution of problem (3.1) is
which completes the proof. □
Remark 3.1 From the expression of , it is obvious that is continuous on . Denote by
To prove the main results, we need the following assumptions:
(H1) For each , the function is weakly sequentially continuous;
(H2) For each , the function is Pettis integrable on J;
(H3)′ There exists and a continuous nondecreasing function such that
(H4) For each bounded set , and each , the following inequality holds:
(H5) There exists a constant such that
Theorem 3.1LetEbe a reflexive Banach space and assume that (H1)(H3) are satisfied. If
then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution onJ.
Proof Let the operator defined by the formula
where is the Green’s function defined by (3.3). It is well known the fixed points of the operator are solutions of the problem (1.1).
First notice that, for , we have (assumption (H2)). Since, , then is Pettis integrable for all by Lemma 2.1, and so the operator is well defined.
Clearly, the subset D is closed, convex and equicontinuous. We shall show that satisfies the assumptions of Lemma 2.5. The proof will be given in three steps.
Step 1: We will show that the operator maps D into itself.
Take , and assume that . Then there exists such that . Thus,
Let , and , so . Then there exists , such that . Hence,
Step 2: We will show that the operator is weakly sequentially continuous.
Let be a sequence in D and let in for each . Fix . Since f satisfies assumptions (H1), we have converge weakly uniformly to . Hence, the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem for Pettis integrals implies converges weakly uniformly to in . Repeating this for each shows . Then is weakly sequentially continuous.
Step 3: The implication (2.1) holds. Now let V be a subset of D such that . Clearly, for all . Hence, , , is bounded in E. Thus, is weakly relatively compact since a subset of a reflexive Banach space is weakly relatively compact if and only if it is bounded in the norm topology. Therefore,
thus, V is relatively weakly compact in E. In view of Lemma 2.5, we deduce that has a fixed point, which is obviously a solution of the problem (1.1). This completes the proof. □
Remark 3.2 In Theorem 3.1, we presented an existence result for weak solutions of the problem (1.1) in the case where the Banach space E is reflexive. However, in the nonreflexive case, conditions (H1)(H3) are not sufficient for the application of Lemma 2.5; the difficulty is with condition (2.1).
Theorem 3.2LetEbe a Banach space, and assume assumptions (H1), (H2), (H3), (H4) are satisfied. If (3.9) holds, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution onJ.
Theorem 3.3LetEbe a Banach space, and assume assumptions (H1), (H2), (H3)′, (H4), (H5) are satisfied. If (3.9) holds, then the problem (1.1) has at least one solution onJ.
Proof Assume that the operator is defined by the formula (3.10). It is well known the fixed points of the operator are solutions of the problem (1.1).
First notice that, for , we have (assumption (H2)). Since, , then for all is Pettis integrable (Lemma 2.1), and thus, the operator makes sense.
clearly, the subset is closed, convex and equicontinuous. We shall show that satisfies the assumptions of Lemma 2.5. The proof will be given in three steps.
Step 1: We will show that the operator maps into itself.
Take , and assume that . Then there exists such that . Thus,
Let , and , so . Then there exist such that
Thus,
Step 2: We will show that the operator is weakly sequentially continuous.
Let be a sequence in and let in for each . Fix . Since f satisfies assumptions (H1), we have , converging weakly uniformly to . Hence, the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem for Pettis integral implies converging weakly uniformly to in . We do it for each so . Then is weakly sequentially continuous.
Step 3: The implication (2.1) holds. Now let V be a subset of such that . Clearly, for all . Hence, , , is bounded in E. Using this fact, assumption (H4), Lemma 2.2 and the properties of the measure β, we have for each
which gives
This means that
By (3.9), it follows that , that is for each , and then is relatively weakly compact in E. In view of Lemma 2.5, we deduce that has a fixed point which is obviously a solution of the problem (1.1). This completes the proof. □
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All authors contributed equally to the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11161027, 11262009). The authors are thankful to the referees for their careful reading of the manuscript and insightful comments.
References

Podlubny, I: Fractional Differential Equations, Academic Press, San Diego (1999)

Kilbas, AA, Srivastava, HM, Trujillo, JJ: Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)

Srivastava, HM: Some generalizations and basic (or q) extensions of the Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials. Appl. Math. Inf. Sci.. 5(3), 390–444 (2011)

Srivastava, HM, Choi, J: Zeta and qZeta Functions and Associated Series and Integrals, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2012)

ElShahed, M: Existence of solution for a boundary value problem of fractional order. Adv. Appl. Math. Anal.. 2(1), 1–8 (2007)

Zhang, S: Existence of solution for a boundary value problem of fractional order. Acta Math. Sci.. 26(2), 220–228 (2006)

ElShahed, M, AlAskar, FM: On the existence of positive solutions for a boundary value problem of fractional order. Int. J. Math. Anal.. 4(1316), 671–678 (2010)

Bai, Z, Lü, H: Positive solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equation. J. Math. Anal. Appl.. 311(2), 495–505 (2005). Publisher Full Text

Zhou, W, Chu, Y: Existence of solutions for fractional differential equations with multipoint boundary conditions. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul.. 17(3), 1142–1148 (2012). Publisher Full Text

Zhou, W, Peng, J, Chu, Y: Multiple positive solutions for nonlinear semipositone fractional differential equations. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc.. 2012, Article ID 850871. doi:10.1155/2012/850871 (2012)

Jackson, FH: On qfunctions and a certain difference operator. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb.. 46, 253–281 (1908)

Jackson, R: On qdefinite integrals. Q. J. Pure Appl. Math.. 41, 193–203 (1910)

Kac, V, Cheung, P: Quantum Calculus, Springer, New York (2002)

Stanković, MS, Rajković, PM, Marinković, SD: On qfractional derivatives of RiemannLiouville and Caputo type. http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.0387 (2009)

AlSalam, WA: Some fractional qintegrals and qderivatives. Proc. Edinb. Math. Soc.. 15(2), 135–140 (1967)

Agarwal, RP: Certain fractional qintegrals and qderivatives. Math. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc.. 66, 365–370 (1969). Publisher Full Text

Rajković, PM, Marinković, SD, Stanković, MS: On qanalogues of Caputo derivative MittagLeffler function. Fract. Calc. Appl. Anal.. 10(4), 359–373 (2007)

ElShahed, M, Hassan, HA: Positive solutions of qdifference equation. Proc. Am. Math. Soc.. 138(5), 1733–1738 (2010)

Ferreira, RAC: Nontrivial solutions for fractional qdifference boundary value problems. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ.. 2010, Article ID 70 (2010)

Ferreira, RAC: Positive solutions for a class of boundary value problems with fractional qdifferences. Comput. Math. Appl.. 61(2), 367–373 (2011). Publisher Full Text

ElShahed, M, AlAskar, FM: Positive solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional qdifference equation. ISRN Math. Anal.. 2011, Article ID 385459. doi:10.5402/2011/385459 (2011)

Ahmad, B, Alsaedi, A, Ntouyas, SK: A study of secondorder qdifference equations with boundary conditions. Adv. Differ. Equ.. 2012, Article ID 35. doi:10.1186/16871847201235 (2012)

Ahmad, B, Nieto, JJ: On nonlocal boundary value problems of nonlinear qdifference equations. Adv. Differ. Equ.. 2012, Article ID 81. doi:10.1186/16871847201281 (2012)

Banaś, J, Goebel, K: Measures of Noncompactness in Banach Spaces, Dekker, New York (1980)

Banaś, J, Sadarangani, K: On some measures of noncompactness in the space of continuous functions. Nonlinear Anal.. 68(2), 377–383 (2008). Publisher Full Text

Guo, D, Lakshmikantham, V, Liu, X: Nonlinear Integral Equations in Abstract Spaces, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (1996)

Krzyska, S, Kubiaczyk, I: On bounded pseudo and weak solutions of a nonlinear differential equation in Banach spaces. Demonstr. Math.. 32(2), 323–330 (1999)

Lakshmikantham, V, Leela, S: Nonlinear Differential Equations in Abstract Spaces, Pergamon, Oxford (1981)

Mönch, H: Boundary value problems for nonlinear ordinary differential equations of second order in Banach spaces. Nonlinear Anal.. 4(5), 985–999 (1980). Publisher Full Text

O’Regan, D: Fixed point theory for weakly sequentially continuous mapping. Math. Comput. Model.. 27(5), 1–14 (1998). Publisher Full Text

O’Regan, D: Weak solutions of ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces. Appl. Math. Lett.. 12(1), 101–105 (1999). Publisher Full Text

Szufla, S: On the application of measure of noncompactness to existence theorems. Rend. Semin. Mat. Univ. Padova. 75, 1–14 (1986)

Szufla, S, Szukala, A: Existence theorems for weak solutions of nth order differential equations in Banach spaces. Funct. Approx. Comment. Math.. 26, 313–319 Dedicated to Julian Musielak (1998)

Salem, HAH: On the fractional order mpoint boundary value problem in reflexive Banach spaces and weak topologies. J. Comput. Appl. Math.. 224(2), 565–572 (2009). Publisher Full Text

Salem, HAH, ElSayed, AMA, Moustafa, OL: A note on the fractional calculus in Banach spaces. Studia Sci. Math. Hung.. 42(2), 115–130 (2005)

Benchohra, M, Graef, JR, Mostefai, FZ: Weak solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations on reflexive Banach spaces. Electron. J. Qual. Theory Differ. Equ.. 2010, Article ID 54 (2010)

Zhou, W, Chang, Y, Liu, H: Weak solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equations in Banach spaces. Discrete Dyn. Nat. Soc.. 2012, Article ID 527969. doi:10.1155/2012/527969 (2012)

Zhou, W, Liu, H: Existence of weak solutions for nonlinear fractional differential inclusion with nonseparated boundary conditions. J. Appl. Math.. 2012, Article ID 530624. doi:10.1155/2012/530624 (2012)

Pettis, BJ: On integration in vector spaces. Trans. Am. Math. Soc.. 44(2), 277–304 (1938). Publisher Full Text

De Blasi, FS: On the property of the unit sphere in a Banach space. Bull. Math. Soc. Sci. Math. Répub. Social. Roum.. 21(34), 259–262 (1977)